Crash-Kurs Betriebssysteme & Linux
Dieser Abschnitt ist der Dokumentation der Linux Intro Workshop 2016/17 entnommen (siehe Introduction) und nur in sehr geringem Maße abgeändert.
Worauf läuft ein Betriebssystem (Hardware) und wie läuft ein Betriebssystem (Software)?
Eingestiegen sind wir mit einer Intro zur Hardware eines klassischen Computers, auf der am Ende ja dann jedes Betriebssystem (auch OS für Operating System abgekürzt) laufen muss. Das Flip dazu mit den jeweiligen Komponenten die in so einem System drin sind ist hier: https://jackie.diebin.at/2016/12-linux-intro-ws/02_hardware.jpg
Danach gabs einen Block zu Betriebssystemen. Da gings darum welche Komponenten so ein Betriebssystem üblicherweise hat und wie diese zwischen der Hardware und unseren Anwendungsprogrammen vermittelt. Das Flip dazu gibts hier: https://jackie.diebin.at/2016/12-linux-intro-ws/03_software.jpg
Umfangreiche Infos zu kernels (Betriebssystem-Kernen) gibts u.a. auf der Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel_(operating_system)
Spezifisch zum Linux-Kernel gibts auch eine Seite, die ein bisschen was über die Entwicklungsgeschichte erzählt aber auch im Teil zur Architektur des Linux Kernels Grafiken hat die die Vielzahl an Komponenten im Linux-Kernel darstellen: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel
Zur Geschichte von Linux
Umfangreicher Artikel zu "Linux" in der Wikipedia: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux
Grafik "Evolution of Unix and Unix-like systems": https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix-like#/media/File:Unix_history-simple.svg
Grafik "timeline representing the development of various Linux distributions": https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_distribution#/media/File:Linux_Distribution_Timeline.svg
Vergleich von verschiedenen aktuellen Linux-Distros: https://distrowatch.com/
Auch hier gabs ein Flip dazu: https://jackie.diebin.at/2016/12-linux-intro-ws/04_history.jpg
Hier auch der Text, den wir uns vorab zu diesem Teil (in english) zusammengeschrieben haben:
Linux is an operating system that is developed under the principles of F/LOSS (Free/Libre and Open Source Software). This means, everybody is allowed to look at the source code of the system and also to change it towards their own needs. In the particular case of Linux (and most other F/LOSS software) one also has to share the resulting code under the same condition. So it is a cultural good which cannot be appropriated for commercial uses without giving something back to society.
But how did Linux and F/LOSS develop? Well, in the beginning of digital and electronic computer developement (that is, the 1950ies and onwards) computers where huge and expensive piles of hardware. If you bought a computer you paid a huge amount of money for the hardware. The software then was sort of a free add-on. Users were explicitly allowed to change the code towards their need. Only in the late 1960ies new business models emerged that were based on selling software. Throughout the following decades more and more software was developed proprietary and the users where not allowed to change the code. They even could not look into the code and had to live with the flaws of the product they have bought. That is why more and more people in and around software development got annoyed and started to produce code that was explicitly open to change but also required the results to be open for everybody who is interested in it. One central figure here is Richard Stallman, a hacker at the MIT AI Lab, who announce the GNU Project in 1983 and founded the Free Software Foundation in 1985.
This led to several projects producing Free Software - software as a cultural good and not only free for consumption without paying money, but also free to be changed and adopted towards our own needs. The Linux kernel, that was started by Linus Torvalds in 1991 is one such project, that was put under the GNU General Public License in 1992. Since then more and more developers joind in extending and adopting the Linux kernel. Together with other Free Software products complete operating systems could be assembled, consisting of Free Software.
Today we have a lot of different Linux distributions and also within each distribution we have a lot of different options to choose from - regarding the graphical user interface we want to use, the servers we want to employ, the office programmes we want to use, etc. The Linux kernel itself (as the core of these operating systems) developed alongside many different other operating systems, F/LOSS ones as well as proprietary ones. Take a look at the "Evolution of Unix and Unix-like systems" Chart from the Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix-like#/media/File:Unix_history-simple.svg
Here you can also see, that Mac OS X is not so far from Linux. It is also a Unix-based system and therefore has a lot in common with Linux systems, when it comes to the core of the system. Even Microsoft's MS DOS, back in the days, was developed out of Xenix, which is a fork of Unix Version 7.
Some of the popular Linux distributions are: Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Linux Mint, Fedora Linux, Gentoo Linux, Arch Linux
And behold, on Wikipedia we can also find a substantial timeline representing the development of various Linux distributions, including Android: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_distribution#/media/File:Linux_Distribution_Timeline.svg
Zu Women* in Linux:
- The Ada Project: https://www.women.cs.cmu.edu/ada
- "Free Software culture as an illustrative case", chapter in: "Computer scientists & their publics. On constructions of ‘participation’ and ‘publics’ in participatory design and research." Full-text at https://jackie.noblogs.org/
- HOWTO Encourage Women in Linux: http://valerieaurora.org/howto/index.html
- The Ada Initiative: https://adainitiative.org
Das Flip zu diesem Teil ist das selbe wie im vorigen Abschnitt: https://jackie.diebin.at/2016/12-linux-intro-ws/04_history.jpg
Auch hier gibts den vorab geschriebenen Text in english:
Women have been crucial even in the beginnings of the developement of computers. It all started with world's first programmer, Ada Lovelace. And at all stages of developing computers, computer languages and other crucial concepts in computing, women had key roles. A collection of such women can be found at: https://www.women.cs.cmu.edu/ada/Resources/Women/
When it comes to Linux specifically, there also is a lot of involvement by women*. But sometimes it seems that women in FLOSS communities face even more sexism then in computer tech in general. Some insights into the specifically harsh conditions withing FLOSS communities can be found in the chapter "Free Software culture as an illustrative case" of a master thesis on "Computer scientists & their publics" (Klaura 2014, pp. 32-34, full-text access at https://jackie.noblogs.org/\
So it is a tough field for women* in Linux, but nevertheless there are a lot of us, and more and more encouraging spaces pop up everywhere. A key actor in this regard is Valerie Aurora (http://valerieaurora.org\, a Linux kernel developer, who co-founded the Ada Initiative (https://adainitiative.org\, which is "Supporting women in open technology and culture". She also wrote the "HOWTO Encourage Women in Linux" guide (http://valerieaurora.org/howto/index. html) in 2002/3, which is also featured on The Linux Documentation Project at tldp.org (http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Encourage-Women-Linux-HOWTO/\, a main source of information regarding Linux.
The other co-founder of the Ada Initiative is Mary Gardiner, a software developer who is also a main contributor to the Geek Feminism Blog (https://geekfeminism.org\. The latter project "exists to support, encourage, and discuss issues facing women and nonbinary people in geek communities, including science and technology, gaming, SF fandom, and more." It was founded in 2009 with the background of the Geek Feminism Wiki (http://geekfeminism.wikia.com\. Its founder, Alex Bayley, best known as Skud, has also a long history of developer involvement in open source communities (http://geekfeminism.wikia.com/wiki/Skud\.
The aforementioned projects and people have a rather explicit feminist agenda. Besides those there are a lot more projects and communities out there, with more or less explicit agendas, sometimes "only" focussing on fostering female careers in (software) technology, sometimes with political goals beyond changing the gender ratio in tech. Some of those projects are: the LinuxChix (http://www.linuxchix.org\, a community of women who like Linux and supports women in computing. It was founded 1999. Women in Linux (http://www.womeninlinux.com\ is a project/community fostering female careers in Linux and other tech fields. Then there are some Linux distribution specific women groups like the Arch Women (https://archwomen.org\, the Ubuntu Women (http://wiki.ubuntu-women.org/\ or the Fedora Women (https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Women\.
While most of these groups can be accessed globally through digital means, most of them are regionally based in the global north and more specifically the USA. Regarding the german speeking countries there is not much information on/by women groups dealing with Linux or FLOSS in general. But there are some groups out there, most notably the Haecksen of the Chaos Computer Clubs (http://www.haecksen.org\. And then of course we can mention our own projects, diebin.at (https://diebin.at/\ and A Noether Network (https://annoethernetwork.wordpress.com/\, which are both Vienna based collectives working with and around Linux, FLOSS, science & tech.
Zur Geschichte des Begriffs "Motherboard":
In einem Stack-Exchange Forum wurde die Frage gestellt was die Beziehung zwischen Motherboard und Mainboard ist und woher die Metapher kommt. Da wurde dann auch mit interessante Rechercheergebnissen geantwortet. Einen Auszug daraufs haben wir hier hinterlegt:
Der ganze Forumseintrag ist hier zu finden: https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/10386/why-motherboard-is-used-to-refer-to-main-board-of-computer